The voltage follower or unity gain amplifier in a voltage divider
Operational amplifiers have a very high input impedance, which means that they don’t suck in much current (ideally, none) at the inputs. Op amps also have a very low output impedance. One application where this is useful is in a voltage divider.
Selecting an optocoupler to isolate a PWM
It seems as if optocouplers would be best used in a digital environment, however, it is possible to use optocouplers to isolate pulse width modulated (PWM) signals. However, the speed of the optocoupler is key; the minimum pulse width of the PWM must be longer than the switching speed of the optocoupler. But how do you tease this information from the optocoupler data sheet?
What are active and passive sensors?
In the discussion of passives versus actives, it can be said that proper classification is somewhat subjective and open to discussion, especially as we uncover new technologies.
What is pulse-width modulation (PWM)?
PWM is not true analog output, however. PWM “fakes” an analog-like result by applying power in pulses, or short bursts of regulated voltage.
What is a multiplying DAC?
Typically, analog devices like op amps and data converters have input, output, and reference voltages (for data converters) that are bounded by the “rails” set by the device’s supply voltage (Vs). The MDAC is an exception, as it can use a VREF that is much higher than the voltage supplied to the MDAC itself.
What is a digital potentiometer?
Digital potentiometers can be used where ever mechanical potentiometers are employed, for sensor trimming and calibration (remote or local), instrumentation (gain or offset adjustment), for adjustable gain amplifiers, audio level control, to match line impedances, in optical networks, for level adjustments in automotive electronics and in programmable power supplies, filters, time constants, or delay values.
What’s the difference between an analog switch and digital switch ICs?
Analog switches are able to pass or isolate both analog and digital signals, but digital switches can only pass or isolate digital signal lines. Both are used instead of mechanical switches for convenience, reliability, and their small size as compared to mechanical switches.
Compensating for DAC Offset and Gain Error
The ideal transfer function of a DAC is like a slope-intercept equation that you may have first seen in 8th grade math: y = mx + b, where m is the slope of the function, and b is the point where the line intercepts the y-axis (called the y-intercept). The transfer function of an ideal DAC will have no offset and no gain.
What are the different “grounds” in electronic design?
There are many situations where improper or too-casual use of the term “ground” leads to miscommunication. Further, such sloppy use in terminology can also lead to sloppiness in design, as there are many types of “grounds” and some that really aren’t ground at all.
What does an analog driver/buffer do?
Although these buffers often handle digital signals consisting of 1s and 0s, they are actually functioning in the real, analog world of voltage, current, time, and failures. As such, they are analog circuits handling real-world “digital” signals.